Documentation for routine
run assembled from the following types:
From Independent routines
sub run(* ($, *@),: = '-',: = '-',: = '-',Bool : = False,Bool : = True,Bool : = False,Str : = 'UTF-8',Str : = "\n",: = ,Hash() : =--> Proc)
Runs an external command without involving a shell and returns a Proc object. By default, the external command will print to standard output and error, and read from standard input.
run 'touch', '>foo.txt'; # Create a file named >foo.txtrun <<rm >foo.txt>>; # Another way to use run, using word quoting for the# arguments
If you want to pass some variables you can still use
< >, but try to avoid using
« » as it will do word splitting if you forget to quote variables:
my = ‘--my arbitrary filename’;run ‘touch’, ‘--’, ; # RIGHTrun <touch -->, ; # RIGHTrun «touch -- "$file"»; # RIGHT but WRONG if you forget quotesrun «touch -- »; # WRONG; touches ‘--my’, ‘arbitrary’ and ‘filename’run ‘touch’, ; # WRONG; error from `touch`run «touch "$file"»; # WRONG; error from `touch`
-- is required for many programs to disambiguate between command-line arguments and filenames that begin with hyphens.
run 'false'; # SUNK! Will throwrun('false').so; # OK. Evaluates Proc in Bool context; no sinking
If you want to capture standard output or error instead of having it printed directly you can use the
:err arguments, which will make them available using their respective methods:
my = run 'echo', 'Raku is Great!', :out, :err;.out.slurp(:close).say; # OUTPUT: «Raku is Great!␤».err.slurp(:close).say; # OUTPUT: «␤»
You can use these arguments to redirect them to a filehandle, thus creating a kind of pipe:
my = open :w, '/tmp/cur-dir-ls-alt.txt';my = run "ls", "-alt", :out();# (The file will contain the output of the ls -alt command)
new for more examples.
Runs the thread, and returns the invocant. It is an error to run a thread that has already been started.